Fort Sam Houston Elementary School

Mrs. Vickie David » Home

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Mrs. Vickie David

Fort Sam Houston ISD Dyslexia Coordinator

vdavid@fshisd.net

 

 

 

 

The 2018 Dyslexia Handbook (Texas) defines dyslexia as:
 
Students identified as having dyslexia typically experience primary difficulties in phonological awareness, including phonemic awareness and manipulation, single-word reading, reading fluency, and spelling. Consequences may include difficulties in reading comprehension and/or written expression. These difficulties in phonological awareness are unexpected for the student’s age and educational level and are not primarily the result of language difference factors. Additionally, there is often a family history of similar difficulties. 
 
 
The following characteristics identify risk factors associated with dyslexia at different stages or grade levels.
 
Preschool
Delay in learning to talk
• Difficulty with rhyming 2
• Difficulty pronouncing words (e.g., “pusgetti” for “spaghetti,” “mawn lower” for “lawn mower”)
• Poor auditory memory for nursery rhymes and chants • Difficulty adding new vocabulary words
• Inability to recall the right word (word retrieval)
• Trouble learning and naming letters and numbers and remembering the letters in his/ her name
• Aversion to print (e.g., doesn’t enjoy following along if a book is read aloud)
 
Kindergarten and First Grade
Difficulty breaking words into smaller parts, or syllables (e.g., “baseball” can be pulled apart into “base” “ball” or “napkin” can be pulled apart into “nap” “kin”)
• Difficulty identifying and manipulating sounds in syllables (e.g., “man” sounded out as /m/ /ă/ /n/) • Difficulty remembering the names of letters and recalling their corresponding sounds
• Difficulty decoding single words (reading single words in isolation)
• Difficulty spelling words the way they sound (phonetically) or remembering letter sequences in very common words seen often in print (e.g., “sed” for “said”)
 
Second Grade and Third Grade
Many of the previously described behaviors remain problematic along with the following:
• Difficulty recognizing common sight words (e.g., “to,” “said,” “been”)
• Difficulty decoding single words
• Difficulty recalling the correct sounds for letters and letter patterns in reading
• Difficulty connecting speech sounds with appropriate letter or letter combinations and omitting letters in words for spelling (e.g., “after” spelled “eftr”)
• Difficulty reading fluently (e.g., reading is slow, inaccurate, and/or without expression)
• Difficulty decoding unfamiliar words in sentences using knowledge of phonics
• Reliance on picture clues, story theme, or guessing at words
• Difficulty with written expression
 
Fourth Grade through Sixth Grade
Many of the previously described behaviors remain problematic along with the following:
• Difficulty reading aloud (e.g., fear of reading aloud in front of classmates)
• Avoidance of reading (particularly for pleasure)
• Difficulty reading fluently (e.g., reading is slow, inaccurate, and/or without expression)
• Difficulty decoding unfamiliar words in sentences using knowledge of phonics
• Acquisition of less vocabulary due to reduced independent reading
• Use of less complicated words in writing that are easier to spell than more appropriate words (e.g., “big” instead of “enormous”) • Reliance on listening rather than reading for comprehension